Special Effects (F/X) -
Milestones in Film
|Film Title/Year and Description of Visual-Special Effects|
Although nominated for the Best Visual Effects Academy Awards Oscar, the film lost to Inception (2010) (see below).
Many now common-place features of the Harry Potter films are actually special effects magic, often unnoticed or blending in seamlessly with the story, e.g.
In this particular film, notable action scenes were the flight to the Burrow on thestrals and brooms (and Hagrid's harrowing motorbike encounter with traffic, and tunnel, and Death-Eater attacks), and the two wand shoot-outs (in the coffee-house and in Malfoy Manor).
Extremely advanced special effects techniques were used in the early scene in which 6 doppelganger Harry Potters were created, by having six of Harry's friends (George, Fred, Ron, Hermione, Fleur and Mundungus) drink Polyjuice Potion at Privet Drive. The multiple Harrys were designed to thwart the coming attack of Voldemort and his Death-Eaters.
The CGI characters of house-elves Kreacher (pictured) and Dobby were animated visual effects, as was python-like Nagini's early appearance, followed by its emergence from Bathilda Bagshot and subsequent attack against Harry.
The illusionary vision Ron experienced while threatening to destroy the locket-horcrux with the Sword of Griffindor was a startling image of Harry and Hermione kissing topless, as well as a large dark monstrosity and spiders.
Exceptional animation was evidenced in The Tale of the Three Brothers, homage to the hand-cut paper silhouettes in one of the earliest animations in cinematic history by Lotte Reiniger.
Christopher Nolan's mind-bending suspense thriller about invading people's dreams won four technical Oscar awards, Best Visual Effects, Best Sound Mixing and Sound Editing, and Best Cinematography.
A dream manipulator named Dom Cobb (Leonardo DiCaprio) and his team entered the multi-leveled psyche of an energy tycoon (Cillian Murphy) to implant an idea about how he wouldn't follow in his father's footsteps.
Some of the most astonishing, surreal and ground-breaking special effects were seen in the various dreamscapes where the laws of logic and gravity didn't hold.
Martin Scorsese's big-budget PG-rated family adventure drama (the director's first 3D effort) was purposely made to celebrate and pay homage to many cinematic moments, including films such as Lang's Metropolis (1927), Harold Lloyd's Safety Last! (1923), Hitchcock's Rear Window (1954), and many others.
It had 11 Oscar nominations, and won five awards (Cinematography, Art Direction, Sound Mixing, and Sound Editing), including Best Visual Effects. The four other nominees in the category were: The Girl With the Dragon Tattoo (2011), Transformers: Dark of the Moon (2011), War Horse (2011), and Drive (2001).
The overall look and color of the film was to imitate an early color process in cinematic history (pioneered by the Lumiere Brothers in France), known as Autochrome.
The tale was basically a quest to solve the mystery of George Méliès (1861-1938), the innovative and pioneering filmmaker (known for trick stop-motion shots, multiple exposures and time-lapse photography) who became forlorn and discouraged in his later years. When his film ventures failed, he had to resort to selling candy and toys (a role played by Ben Kingsley in the film) at the Montparnasse train station in Paris.
The story was about a 12 year-old orphaned, mechanically-inclined boy named Hugo Cabret (Asa Butterfield), who lived in 1930s Paris inside the Gare Montparnasse train station. The source novel of the fully digital film was Brian Selznick's 'The Invention of Hugo Cabret' - first published in 2007.
The opening scene (created by ILM) was a tracking shot (resembling streak photography) of the city of Paris, ending at the train station. It took one year to film, and required 1000 computers to render each frame required for the shot.
One of the most amazing dream sequences (using detailed miniature models and green-screen F/X technology) was the derailment and crash of a train. It was a recreation of the famous derailment of the Granville-Paris Express at Gare Montparnasse in 1895. Hugo jumped down into the tracks, to retrieve a heart-shaped key (that operated an automaton or mechanical man, an F/X model), with words inscribed on it: "CABRET ET FILS HORLOGERS."
Suddenly, the track began to vibrate, signaling the approach of a large steam locomotive into the station. The engineer spotted the individual ("Boy on the tracks!") and attempted to break the fast-moving train. Sparks flew as the train tried to screech to a halt. The boy put up his hand and diverted the train onto the platform, where it rammed into various vendors and a cafe, and ended up crashing through the outside wall.
Another remarkable scene, another dream sequence, was the one in which Hugo imagined himself turning into a mechanical machine or automaton.
The Opening Tracking Shot
Hugo's Dream of Turning into an Automaton
The Train Derailment and Crash
Hugo Hanging From Clock - Homage to Safety Last! (1923)
Life of Pi (2012)
Director Ang Lee's ambitious film was an Oscar winner for Best Visual Effects, defeating Marvel's The Avengers (2012), The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey (2012), Prometheus (2012), and Snow White and the Huntsman (2012).
It told about survival re-created the 2001 novel by Yann Martel about an Indian boy named Pi (Suraj Sharma), aka Piscine Molitor "Pi" Patel.
After the tragic sinking of a Japanese freighter in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, Pi became trapped on a life raft with a Bengal tiger, a spotted hyena, a zebra and an orangutan.
A number of visual effects companies were commissioned to create the digital ocean and storm, other environments (the flying fish sequence), the exotic animals, including a Bengal tiger named Richard Parker with realistic-looking fur, a breeching humpback whale, and meerkats on an island.
A huge blue-screen surrounded wave tank (75 by 30 meters and three meters deep) was employed to create the storm sequence. Elaborate digital wire-frames were drawn to reproduce the zoo animals.
A Tank And Blue-Screen
Wire-Frame Tiger Model
Alfonso Cuarón's sci-fi action film was a major Academy Award-winning film, with seven Oscars, including Best Director and Best Visual Effects. The latter award won over intense competition from The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug (2013), Iron Man 3 (2013), The Lone Ranger (2013), and Star Trek Into Darkness (2013).
It told about two surviving astronauts stranded in space after the destruction of their NASA space shuttle Explorer by stray space debris:
To create or simulate the illusion of weightlessness in space's zero-g environment, actress Sandra Bullock was required to be hooked up in a giant mechanical rig inside a cube of light. The effect was created using a combination of motion controlled cameras. Cameras were strapped to huge robotic arms and the actor was put in a variety of different rigs within the 3-D light box.
It was incredible to realize that most of the film was digitally created by visual effects artists -- including all the shots of the vastness of space, the Earth, the stars, the space shuttles, the Hubble Telescope, the International Space Station (ISS), the debris fragments, and the spacesuits.
The Light Box and Rig Set-Up
In director Christopher Nolan's epic science-fiction blockbuster, when Earth was becoming uninhabitable, a team of research scientists and widowed former NASA pilot Cooper (Matthew McConaughey) searched in space for a suitable Earth-like planet. Their plan was to enter a wormhole as a pathway to a distant galaxy where there might be habitable planets.
The film won the Academy Award for Best Visual Effects (its sole win), defeating such mega-hits as Captain America: The Winter Soldier (2014), Dawn of the Planet of the Apes (2014), Guardians of the Galaxy (2014), and X-Men: Days of Future Past (2014). The film was authentically-researched to bring together art and science, using the advice of CalTech astrophysicists, among others. The VFX team was also inspired by images taken of the Apollo Lunar missions of the 1960s and 1970s, and of the astronauts on the International Space Station.
While the Saturn V launch in the film was digitally created, most of the major effects, including shots of the Ranger shuttles and Endurance, were not digital. Miniatures (or models) hadn't been used to this scale in a film for awhile (i.e. the Endurance model was about 25 feet in length). The objective was to be more realistic by using the models, rather than having less real digitally-created spaceships.
It also boasted the first scientifically-accurate display of a super-massive black hole (known as Gargantua) on the big screen, and of other phenomena in space. [Note: Black holes were historically represented as large drain holes with swirling currents, but in fact, black holes more accurately are three-dimensional spheres.]
Also, new software was used to render gigantic tidal waves that towered more than 4,000 feet high in an alien world. And in the scene involving a Tesseract (a four dimensional space allowing time to be seen as a physical dimension), the visual effects team scanned (in high resolution) the entire farmhouse bedroom set, without using any shortcut green-screen effects. In the scene, Cooper entered the 4th-dimensional version of his daughter "Murph" Cooper's (Jessica Chastain) bedroom, to make contact with her. He sent messages to Murph via books falling off the shelf, and then by moving hands on a watch.
Dust storms in the film were a mixture between digitally-fabricated computer graphics and practical effects. The film's two robots (TARS and CASE) were presented without recognizable human features. Two versions of TARS were filmed - live-action, and digitally-created.
Ex Machina (2015, UK)
There was tremendous competition in the Academy Award category of Best Visual Effects this year. Those that 'lost' included the big-budget F/X hits: Mad Max: Fury Road (2015), The Martian (2015), The Revenant (2015), and Star Wars: Episode VII - The Force Awakens (2015). It was only the second time that a film has won the VFX category without also having a Best Picture nomination, in a year when at least one other nominee (in this case, three) had a Best Picture nomination.
Writer/director Alex Garland's directorial debut film was a sci-fi thriller that asked: "What constitutes true artificial intelligence?" In the story, mid-20s coder-programmer Caleb Smith (Domhnall Gleeson) was invited by Nathan Bateman (Oscar Isaac), the eccentric CEO of search engine computer company BlueBook (a hybrid of Google and Facebook), to visit his isolated and reclusive mountain "research facility" (with walls of glass) in Alaska for a week, where he was studying artificial intelligence.
During Caleb's work, he administered the Turing test to a newly-developed android - a walking, talking, expressive humanoid robot named Ava (Alicia Vikander), to evaluate her emotions and reactions.
Ava was a marvelous, realistic F/X creation, composed of encased circuitry within a metal skeleton and human face/hands/feet. She had see-through limbs, a chrome-domed cranium, and a glowing, see-through midriff power-core.
Film Milestones in Visual/Special Effects (F/X)
(chronological order by film title)
Introduction | 1880s-1890s | 1900-1905 | 1906-1920 | 1921-1929 | 1930-1939 | 1940-1949 | 1950-1959
1960-1969 | 1970-1974 | 1975-1979 | 1980-1982 | 1983-1985 | 1986-1988 | 1989-1991 | 1992-1994
1995-1996 | 1997-1998 | 1999-2000 | 2001-2002 | 2003-2005 | 2006-2007 | 2008-2009 | 2010-Present